Higher levels of automation and connectivity throughout the Internet of Things (IoT) are aimed at helping organizations go through a fourth Industrial Revolution in industrial technology known as the Cyber-physical system (CPS) revolution. The CPS includes anything from the most basic sensors to sophisticated high-end computers that collect data and control the overall system. Information and command movements must occur through reliable and uncompromised networks; this implies that a CPS must be highly dependable, predictable, and secure.
Various organizations are devising autonomous transportation systems. An autonomous vehicle (AV) is both a specific CPS and an IoT, implemented using an intricate combination of embedded systems. Many automobile manufacturers, technology corporations, start-ups, and even governments are striving to accelerate the development of autonomous vehicles in the current period. Connectivity and autonomy in autonomous vehicles (AVs) can work wonders and realize sensible applications such as intelligent intersection control, automated traffic management, among others. Despite boasting the capability to deploy state-of-the-art applications, some fundamental issues are plaguing autonomous vehicles, such as lack of robust connectivity, non-dependable autonomy, connectivity security, autonomy security, and integration. Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) links enable the car to communicate with everything outside of it. Adversaries will attempt to take advantage of these connections to attack the AV. These V2I and V2V connections must be mutually authenticated and protected from disclosure and modification. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) demand the highest level of security, more so for the CPS responsible for managing safety-critical functions such as collision avoidance, ABS, cruise control, etc. There are many different security threats; in this case, we treat the users as external/insider adversaries. An outsider attack is perpetrated by non-members of the system, while an authenticated member launches an inside attack. Insider attacks range from a tampered sensor, exposing a software vulnerability, leaking a secret security key, etc.
Thus, the motive of this chapter is to highlight different security issues faced by a CPS, especially from an autonomous vehicle standpoint, various possible security threats facing autonomous vehicles (AVs), and mechanisms for securing these Cyber-physical systems will be presented.