The potato (Solarium tuberosum L.) originated in the Peruvian Andes. During a period of 180 years, the first and probably unknown contribution of breeding to the physiological response of the potato allowed its adaptation to European conditions. When discussing the genetic improvements in new potato cultivars, it is necessary to consider those achieved in tuber dormancy and sensitivity to physiological aging, because both traits are capable of modifying potential crop growth. When the potato tuber is planted at an adequate physiological age, according to the corresponding length of the growing season and final purpose of the crop (seed, ware, industry), sprout growth will proceed at a rate mainly determined by temperature if no pathogens, water, or nutrients are limiting factors. In areas where only one crop per year is grown, varieties with a long absolute dormant period are needed to reduce storage losses due to sprouting, evaporation, and respiration.