Infrared heating is a technology that has many applications in post-harvest cereal production. Through its heating and drying effects, infrared radiation is today commonly applied to cereals to increase their shelf-life, and improve their safety by destroying spores, bacteria, or fungus as well as deactivating enzymes that would otherwise cause rancidity or off-flavours. The use of infrared (IR) has therefore improved much of the logistics of bringing cereals safely from the field to our table. While cereals are consumed as a staple food due to their high starch and protein content and ability to meet our daily energy demand, they also contain a plethora of bioactive compounds. The latter depending on their composition and concentration can have either health-promoting effects, such as anti-inflammatory, or may cause unwanted effects, such as reduction of digestibility of cereals. Interestingly, in many cases IR heating alters the biochemical compositions of cereals affecting starch, protein, lipid, phytochemical, and bioactive content as well as physical properties such as taste, odour, and texture. Therefore, for the cereal industry it is crucial IR strategies are optimised for the desired health benefits. The aim of this chapter is to summarise and discuss the effect of IR irradiation on the nutritional, functional, and biological characteristics of cereals.