Some decades later, in 1979, the merging of microfabrication with analytical methods resulted in the creation of the field of microfluidics. Microfluidics and microfabrication, in recent years, have attracted considerable attention for the many applications in which microlitre or nanolitre volumes of fluid could apply to the modern IVF laboratory or clinic. Where 2D models lack the physiological relevance and three-dimensional (3D) architecture within tissue-tissue and multi-organ interactions microfabrication and microfluidics have been extensively utilized to develop better cell culture platforms than the existing conventional in vitro models. Microfabrication and microfluidics enable development of complex, 3D culture platforms with many benefits over conventional 2D culture. However, it is potentially through novel microfabrication approaches that such perfusion systems will be able to be evaluated in a clinical setting.