This chapter looks at the relationship between cities and the technologies that support it, in terms of sustainability. It considers how urban living impacts environmental degradation and climate change and how the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals offer guidance for future development.

It questions almost all modern practices and highlights their negative impact on people and the planet. The “Fourth Industrial Revolution” will be about using technology to do things better and, often more simply, to overcome the negative legacy of industrialization and the need to reduce carbon emissions. Technology will have to be harnessed to create cities that support decent outcomes for both people and the planet through smart solutions to energy production; food production; and improved urban design, transport, and infrastructure. The chapter explores how technology, led by good governance and low carbon strategies, will have to be central to this shift.