Biodegradable polymers are explored and used for the development of biomaterials for various therapeutic devices like scaffolds and temporary implants in tissue engineering. These biomaterials are useful for targeted and controlled or sustained release of drugs by acting as vehicles in delivery systems. All the applications require some specific physicochemical, biological compatibility, and biodegradability properties in the biomaterials for efficient therapeutic activity. Nanotechnology is being used successfully in designing the biomaterials for tissue engineering in the field of orthopedics, ophthalmology, cardiovascular, nerve regeneration, wound closure, and extracorporeal artificial organs using the biodegradable polymers. This chapter discusses a broad range of polymers used in biomaterials that degrade either by hydrolysis or by enzymes. Different nanodelivery systems using the biomaterials find use in different applications in biomedical field like drug delivery, tissue engineering, temporary implant, and wound healing are discussed at length.