The energy field is developing rapidly in the direction of a distributed, low-carbon, digital, and intelligent energy Internet. With its characteristics of decentralization, group collaboration, peer-to-peer (P2P) communication, smart contracts, anti-counterfeiting and tamper-proofing, openness, and transparency, blockchain technology fits the development direction of the energy industry to improve quality, efficiency, innovation, and reform. At present, the energy industry of many countries has explored related applications, especially in the business fields of power trading, power metering, microgrid, and renewable energy. As the energy industry pays more attention to energy conservation and energy efficiency, blockchain applications are also attracting attention for optimizing the energy industry.

The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) also lists blockchain technology as one of the key innovations in the field of renewable energy. IRENA pointed out in a report that to accelerate the development of low-cost renewable energy, the world needs at least 30 innovative technology tools and enables them to benefit from the scale of renewable energy. Blockchain technology is one of them.

Blockchain technology is a distributed network data management and data computing technology that uses cryptography technology and distributed consensus protocols to ensure network transmission and access security and realizes multi-party data maintenance, cross-validation, uniformity across the network, and resistance to tampering. As an important evolution of a new generation of information and communication technology, the characteristics 236of non-tampering, transparent, and traceable data make the blockchain technology an infrastructure to solve the mutual trust of industry chain participants.