Chickpea and cowpea both belong to the Fabaceae family in classification. Chickpea that originates from Asia, is rich in protein, minerals, lipid, and bioactive compounds that are beneficial for body functions and human health. There are mainly two major types of chickpeas, namely desi (small dark colored) and kabuli (large brown-colored). The cowpea originates from west Africa. They are round with various coloration and have a black spot which is often referred to as an eye. Cowpea is also rich in protein, vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds. Chickpea and cowpea both are resistant to drought and heat compared to common cereals, which makes them adaptable to different environments. Looking at the grain’s physical properties as reported in literature, chickpea has a higher true density, bulk density, surface area, and terminal velocity than cowpea. Other physical properties, such as sphericity, porosity and thousand kernel weight, are very comparable between the two grains. Looking at the milling evolution, chickpea and cowpea are still developing. Where they originate, traditional dry and wet milling is still practiced. Generally, their milling process starts by removing the hulls, followed by splitting the dehulled seeds. Depending on the end use, further grinding may be required. Traditionally, people use the stone grinder, while in modern technology, hammer mills are mainly used. Literature indicates that chickpea flour has a better water absorption, oil absorption and foaming capacity; cowpea flours have better foam stability, emulsion activity and stability. Both chickpea and cowpea have the potential for increased consumption since they are very nutritious, gluten-free and resilient compared to commonly consumed cereals such as wheat and maize.