As the 20th century draws to a close, the economic and political changes in contemporary Europe seem to be as profound as those that dominated the concerns of Sociology’s founders in the 19th and early 20th centuries – economic crisis, nationalist wars, and social instability. The Single Market among the 12 member states has formed an alliance with nations who are part of the European Free Trade Association to provide a barrier-free market of approximately 400 million people in 19 countries. The establishment of powerful trading blocks in western Europe, North America, and Southeast Asia has created a global “golden triangle”. A major consequence, therefore, of economic restructuring throughout Europe has been an intensification of competitive pressures, and this is likely to reinforce divisions between rich and poor nations and people. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.