This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts covered in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book discusses the manufacture of hard and soft capsule shells formed from both gelatin and alternative shell compositions. It addresses the historical development of capsule making and such topics as capsule sorting, printing, storage and quality. The book then addresses non-gelatin-based capsules specifically, focusing particularly on such topics as hypromellose capsules, pullulan capsules, thermogelation, and capsule performance. It also reviews capsule filling machines and how various components can be filled into capsules and discusses modified-release delivery systems and strategies for formulating controlled-release capsules. The book discusses powder in capsule (PIC) filling, including equipment and methods, potential advantages, and limitations. It then discusses the liquid filling and sealing equipment for hard shell capsules. The book also discusses the rheological aspects of hard and soft shell capsule filling.