This chapter provides an overview of the Muslim world and the global halal trade. It also provides descriptive statistics on the Muslim populations around the world. The focuses on demography is necessary because it is demography which drives economy and trade. It discusses the dynamics of trade in halal products. This will include observable trends in the markets as well as statistical analyses. From a producer’s perspective it is very important to understand the trends and future prospects of food trade in the markets. Adoption of higher halal standards along with competitive pricing is a sure road to success in the Muslim market. The increasing diffusion of culinary tastes, tourism, shifts in family structures, lifestyle changes, rapid urbanization, massive displacement of people due to man-made or natural disasters, and adds new dimensions to the global trade in food. In 2010, the largest number of Muslims in Western Europe were in France, followed by Germany and the United Kingdom.