The pilot is solely responsible for its safe execution, and the air traffic controller is solely responsible for keeping the flight safely separated from other air traffic. Systems designed for autonomous operation pose serious philosophical questions with respect to pilot authority as well as pilot involvement. The increasing capabilities of advanced automation pose a severe temptation to new aircraft design teams. They can decide that the safety of the airplane makes it important that they limit the authority of the pilots, and they can implement that limitation very easily in airplane software. Much industrial automation has been implemented on the implicit assumption that machines could be substituted for humans in the workplace. Management by exception refers to a management/control mode in which the automation possesses the capability to perform all actions required for mission completion and performs them unless the pilot takes exception.