This chapter describes a brief consideration of aircraft certification from the human factors viewpoint. A variety of malfunctions is simulated in the course of the workload certification flights, including the incapacitation of one crewmember. Among the simulated malfunctions are failures and degraded operation of many elements of the automation. Certification pilots can do much to improve these automation deficiencies by utilizing probes in their certification scenarios, and almost as much by simply being aware of the sorts of problems that line pilots are likely to have in handling their automation during routine and off-nominal operations. The opacity issue is also difficult and will ultimately require definitive solutions, but this is an area in which certification experts can be of real help by demanding that new automation keep the pilot informed of its activities and intentions. New automation should keep pilots meaningfully involved in the operation, by whatever means.