The essence of human-centered automation in any domain is effective communication and information transfer among involved agents, regardless of the work being performed by the human–machine system. The Hoogovens automation was largely autonomous by design, as was the expert diagnostic system. Automated systems, then, can be autonomous either by design, or by misadventure. The expert diagnostic system utilized the human simply as a data gatherer rather than as an active collaborator in a cooperative problem-solving process, yet required more than just data to facilitate effective problem solving. The electrical control systems installed aboard Berlin Express are more sophisticated than those normally found on merchant ships, being more similar to those in aircraft. The ship is highly automated and was designed to be operated by a total crew of just 14 people. The bridge is designed for continuous one-person operation, including port entry and berthing.