Over the past two decades drug use and dependence in the French Armed Forces are surveyed by military physicians who carry out special interviews. These interviews are targeted to a sample of population of draftees entering compulsory military service, and to a sample of the military in armed forces units and hospitals. In addition, urinary detection of illicit drugs is performed systematically in the flying personnel of the Air Force and random testing in all other services. Drug use and dependence must be closely monitored among draftees who practically represent every year the whole 18 to 19 year old French male population.