This chapter discusses the enzyme treatment and fermentation for the valorization of food waste and by-products. Agrofood industries are those industries which depend on agricultural products as raw materials. In these industries, food processing results in a range of waste and byproducts according to the type of raw material processed and the respective processing technologies employed. Food industries produce huge amounts of vegetable and fruit waste and by-products which have high biodegradability, soluble constituents and methane emissions leading to environmental problems. Waste from fruit and vegetables processing generally contains large amounts of total suspended solids (TSS) and present high biochemical (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which influence possible recovery solutions and treatment costs. The waste and by-products of agrofood industries are one of major concerns for most food factories. Waste and by-products from agrofood industry contain various nutrients that can be utilized to extract or convert into value-added products, for example, biofuels, bioactive compounds, organic acids, enzyme products.