This chapter discusses many products, which are readily available in premium food markets and, like most foodstuffs discussed in earlier chapters, they become tempting targets of economically motivated fraud. A survey of Slovenian bottled waters included sparkling and flavored waters along with still waters. Water is the major ingredient of carbonated soft drinks, and studies have investigated the isotopic composition of this drink component to gain an understanding of the inputs to modern human body water pools. The purine alkaloid caffeine is a stimulant to the central nervous system and one of the world's most widely consumed psychoactive substances, together with alcohol and nicotine. Vinegar—a common cooking or pickling ingredient—is a dilute acid solution produced via acetous fermentation, which transforms alcohol into acetic acid. Most foodstuffs are processed in some way and many foods are made from combinations of multiple ingredients, which may all be prepared in different ways.