In the last decade, the technological advances in materials and fabrication techniques have vastly changed the face of consumer electronics. The introduction of lithium ion batteries and indium tin oxide (ITO) have provided the increase in energy density and transparent conductors required to produce ultra-portable phones, tablets and laptops. However, there is ever more drive for smaller, faster and longer battery life devices which can only be satisfied by the next-generation of nanomaterials.

In this chapter the recent developments of chemical vapour deposition techniques are discussed for the growth of graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (H-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC). The influences of substrate preparation, selection of substrate material and precursor gases are covered, with a focus on the resulting quality of produced 2D nanomaterial and the suitability for the relevant next-generation application. Each material process is also discussed within the context of developmental progress towards commercialisation such as the relatively mature development of graphene or the emerging growth techniques for TMDC.