The development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in microorganisms is an issue ever increasing in importance. In a nosocomial setting, AMR bacterial infections result in a significant increase in both morbidity and mortality rates, whilst also incurring substantial financial burdens upon the healthcare provider and the psychological welfare of the patient. In light of AMR emergence, emphasis must be placed on the development of alternative antimicrobial agents. The recent development of 2D nanomaterials provides a unique opportunity to utilise their reported unique properties, in order to produce effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. Although research into 2D-nanomaterials as surface coatings is currently in its infancy, research in this area is rapidly progressing.

Throughout this chapter, a comprehensive literature review towards the antimicrobial efficacy and proposed mechanisms of action of 2D nanomaterials is discussed. Carbon-based nanomaterials, (graphite, graphite oxide, reduced graphite oxide, graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphite oxide) and non-carbon based materials (boron nitride, tungsten diselenide and molybdenum disulphide) are discussed. Particular interest is given to the utilisation and application of potential antimicrobial 2D nanomaterials, particularly in the case of surface coatings.