Protection of stored food crops against damage from insect pests and pathogens is a major concern for the food industry, farmers, public health organizations, and environmental agencies. The physicochemical perspective on the potential migration of engineered nanoparticles from packaging to food is based on the average distance traveled by nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Many plant essential oils have been studied that offer novel and effective insecticidal and fungicidal compounds for control of stored product pests. Nano-based controlled delivery systems in packaging using essential oils (EO) or their components are a promising approach for the food industry. In recent years, plant-derived EOs and their bioactive chemical constituents have gained increased attention due to their beneficial insecticidal activities. Nanocomposite polymers, nanoemulsions, and nanoencapsulates have been used in food packaging to enable the slow release of bioactive agents over time, and extend the shelf life of food.