INTRODUCTION Modern society considers the formation of large, individually distinguishable akes of scalp skin an abnormal condition (1). These akes are dislodged by mechanical action and are visible either within the hair or on horizontal surfaces immediately below the hair such as shoulders and top of the back. This condition is known by a number of equivalent names, each having slightly different connotations. The most common, yet not very descriptive, is “dandruff.” “Seborrheic dermatitis” describes essentially the same condition with an emphasis on excessive oiliness (seborrhea) and irritation/redness (dermatitis) (2). Names reecting the fungal causality (though none of them correctly termed based on today’s knowledge; see below) are captured in “pityriasis simplex” and “pityriasis capitis” (referring to Pityrosporum) and “furfuracea” (referring to Malassezia furfur). As all of these terms are in common use today; the practitioner and diagnostician simply needs to understand they represent the same symptomology based on the same etiology, and prescribe treatments as summarized below (2).