This chapter discusses the case study of waste management in urban cities of India and shows the effect of good practices of waste management on health and environment. Waste is the second nature of the existence of life form on the Earth. Increased consumerism and rapid sprawl in urbanization has contributed to the menace manifolds. The existing system of waste management has a number of limitations. For instance, the compost yield from mixed waste composting facilities is only 6%–7% of the total feed material. The well-established delirious environmental impacts of various waste management activities, such as transportation, landfilling, incineration, composting, and recycling, have a great number of direct and indirect health effects. The municipal solid waste management is facing the challenges with allocation of funds, economically viable technologies, and skilled manpower in waste management sector. The role and responsibility of each individual for waste management, needs to be defined to understand the waste as a resource, not as a problem.