Education is an important aspect of strengthening human capital as it contributes to better health, and livelihoods, and overall well-being. Taking this as the basis, this research explored the role of education in shaping adaptive capacity to climate change among the rural mountain communities in the Eastern Himalayan Region of India. Household survey and focus group discussions were conducted to capture this linkage in the East District of Sikkim. The assessment developed the thematic index on education and revealed that there is high deprivation in education. Among the three sub-components of education, quality has highest deprivation (38%), followed by availability (47%) and then access (48%), reflecting a need for attention. Further, the research emphasized the role of social differentiation and gender discrimination in the educational achievements. The research showed that the socio-cultural norms of the rural mountain communities limited the educational achievements. As strengthening of adaptive capacity to climate change necessitates enhancing education, the research reflects that it is important to understand the underlying factors and linkages that limit the conversion of resources (e.g., investment in education) into actual achievements while framing educational policies.