Earthquakes frequently impact densely populated urban areas with poor infrastructure, resulting in high death rates and mass casualties. The injuries and medical complications arising from earthquakes extend across multiple organ systems, including musculoskeletal, renal, neurologic, cardiovascular, infectious disease, respiratory and mental health. Earthquake-related medical complications occur over various time frames, including acutely (in the first post-earthquake week), subacutely (in the first post-earthquake month) and in the long term (in the first post-earthquake year). Acutely, most injuries are musculoskeletal and include lacerations, fractures, sprains and crush injuries. In the subacute phase, cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarctions, strokes, cardiomyopathies and hypertension, as well as infectious disease–related respiratory and waterborne illnesses, are most common. In the longer term, mental health complications, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety, can lead to significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. Earthquakes require a multidisciplinary response that includes a sufficient number of rescuers, nurses, physicians, specialists, rehabilitation services, mental health providers and ancillary staff to provide the appropriate care.