Thermal infrared (TIR) anomalies have been observed in correspondence to earthquake-prone areas starting from the end of the 1980s. Research in the field of TIR precursors is active worldwide and benefits greatly from technology development and new satellite missions. Processing, interpretation and theoretical research continue to enhance methods and knowledge. Advances have regarded the thermal multiparametric analyses for which a deviation–time–space–thermal criterion combination has recently been proposed, aiming to alert for anomalies which are notable enough, quasi-synchronous and spatially adjacent. Further advances coming from the data processing sector have allowed us to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio in thermal maps originating from geostationary data by means of the night thermal gradient index. Finally, the physical links between thermal anomalies and earthquakes are a topic of recent advances in the earthquake precursor literature. The seismic origin of TIR precursors has been proved by many authors, but their nature is not yet clear, and their practical usability is not generally accepted by the whole seismological community.