Edible coatings formulated with different materials can exert direct inhibitory effects on a variety of pathogens that cause important postharvest diseases of fruit. Additionally, edible coatings act as a barrier to water vapor, gases, and other solutes, modulating physiological aspects and eliciting resistance to pathogens in fruit. Altogether, these effects impact positively on quality, storability, and safety of fruit. The efficacy of edible coatings to control postharvest infections in fruit may be enhanced by incorporation of specific antimicrobials. Considering these aspects, this chapter focuses on the potential use of edible coatings formulated with chitosan or other edible coating materials containing salts, natural compounds, or antagonistic microorganisms, as technologies to control postharvest diseases in fruit. Information describing the development of dispersants capable of forming edible coatings, the structural characteristics and functionalities that enable them to coat fruit, as well as the effects (including their mode of action) of active coating materials on different postharvest pathogens observed in in vitro and in different fruit matrices are presented. Furthermore, the impact of coating materials on physiological and metabolic responses in fruit that may affect their postharvest stability will are described. Finally, we suggest future research advances and innovations needed to support the practical use and more efficient application of edible coatings to control postharvest diseases in fruit while maintaining their quality characteristics.