Despite years of documenting groundwater management experiences, the practice of monitoring and evaluating groundwater governance is still in its infancy. More work is needed to reach agreement on a common monitoring framework and a set of evaluation criteria, and to evaluate the role of contextual variables in shaping and influencing groundwater governance. This chapter explores what could be the defining features of a monitoring and evaluation framework for groundwater governance. It conceptualises twelve mutually reinforcing and complementary components of such a reference framework that could be tailored to local contexts. The chapter builds on the OECD Principles on Water Governance to provide a prism for looking at the main characteristics of groundwater governance that owe to be monitored and evaluated. In doing so, the chapter rounds up, in a systemic way, several of the key governance topics discussed in-depth in previous chapters.