The evolution of groundwater management and governance are slow processes. On the one hand, this is due to a poor understanding of the subsurface processes, which slowly impact the state of groundwater systems. On the other hand, the implementation of groundwater management measures is hampered by conflict of interests among stakeholders. In this chapter, we give an overview of the emergence and evolution of groundwater management and groundwater governance, with attempts to clarify the corresponding mechanisms by using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework of analysis. Examples from various historical and geographical situations are presented to illustrate the variety of conditions, solutions and trends. We conclude that the increasing pressure and its negative impacts on the state of groundwater systems have triggered better management and governance. The long-term importance of groundwater to overcome short-term societal challenges has been better understood the last fifty years resulting in more pro-active groundwater governance serving sustainable development goals.