Groundwater basins provide diverse benefits, from consumptive water uses, to water storage, to riparian and aquatic habitat. Realizing these multiple benefits while managing the negative spillover effects requires the engagement and participation of diverse stakeholders and citizens. In this chapter we examine how institutional arrangements encourage different forms of participation and the realization of different values. We illustrate the effects of institutions on participation and governance through two case studies from the western U.S.: the Edwards Aquifer in south central Texas, and the Arkansas River Basin in southeastern Colorado. We conclude with lessons about how to encourage and sustain stakeholder participation in groundwater governance.