This chapter will provide an overview of the contemporary groundwater literature and will show what is currently being done to achieve sustainable groundwater management. First, models for groundwater management will be presented focusing on resource modelling under uncertainty, in particular uncertainty surrounding the effect of climate change on groundwater resources and trans-boundary frameworks. Then, the ecosystem services approach and the concept of the TEV of water will be presented in more detail. Furthermore, we will show where and how these new concepts are integrated in policy frameworks and will present applied examples of sustainable water governance. Last but not least, we will venture out to the future of sustainable groundwater management and have a look at upcoming challenges, opportunities, and cutting-edge research.