Analgesia, sedation and muscle relaxation
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Analgesia, sedation and muscle relaxation book
Sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation are commonly used on the intensive care unit. Patients may have post-operative pain, need opiates for tube tolerance, or sedation to cope with the discomfort of multiple interventions we carry out. Muscle relaxation is mainly used to aid difficult ventilation. Analgesia must be titrated to the needs of the individual. Most intensive care unit (ICU) patients require some form of analgesia. Patients may present with acute or chronic pain issues, or a combination of both. Paracetamol is generally a safe analgesic and is given through both enteral and parenteral routes. An increasingly common form of pain control comes in the form of regional anaesthesia. Epidurals have been used for many years following surgical procedures. Opiates have a sedating effect as well as analgesic properties. Patients are frequently over-sedated, leading to prolonged waking times, a worry about potential intracranial events delirium and prolonged ICU stay.