This chapter discusses the important role of innovation-oriented development of regions to improve the competitiveness of not only their territories but also the country as a whole. It demonstrates the influence of immaterial resources on the process of regional development. The current worldwide trend toward innovative development and internal challenges of Russia involves searching for additional competitive advantages for improving the efficiency and competitiveness of the national economy. The intellectual resource is a characteristic of the sustainable ability of the region to innovation-oriented development. It is characterized by the innovation activity of enterprises, the costs of research and development, implementation and use of the results of scientific and technological activities in the region for several years. In general, the Central Federal District is a leader in social and economic development in Russia and also has high levels of the immaterial resources development, which can be attributed to the presence of regions with a high concentration of researchers and research organizations.