According to National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology (NT) refers to engineering functional systems at the nanoscale (about 1-100 nm size) where unique phenomena facilitate innovative applications. This emerging transdisciplinary field opens novel perspectives in all sectors including medicine, biology, cosmetics, optical science, semi conductor, memory and storage technologies and electronic and automotive industry. Nanotechnology plays an inevitable role in improving the environmental sustainability by means of detecting, preventing, and removing pollutants and also by developing environmental friendly products (Figs. 5.1 and 5.2).