Algae are the main synthesizers of organic matter in aquatic habitats. Since early time, microalgae have been used in human health food products, feeds for fish and livestock, and cultured for high-value of oils (Molina et al., 1999; Spolaore et al., 2006), high-value chemicals for pharma-and nutraceuticals and pigments such as carotenoids (Spolaore et al., 2006; Borowitzka, 2010), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and phycobilins (Mendes et al., 2009). Industrial, municipal, and agricultural wastewater treatments by algal culture systems enhance degradation and improve CO2 balance with lower energy demand for oxygen supply in aerobic treatment stages (Samori et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2013). Among the species for biofuel production includes Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis suecica (Fig. 8.1) and those suitable for wastewater treatment include Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella sp., and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

FIGURE 8.1 Productive microalgae species for biofuel production: a) Nannochloropsis salina, b) Dunaliella salina, c) Tetraselmis suecica (Burton et al., 2009; Greenwell et al., 2009).