ABSTRACT

Francisco de Assis de Souza Filho, Paula Pedreira de Freitas de Oliveira, Marcos Thadeu Abicalil, Cybelle Frazão Costa Braga, Samíria Maria Oliveira da Silva, Sandra Helena Silva de Aquino, Daniel Antonio Camelo Cid, Luiz Martins de Araújo Júnior, and Ana Cláudia Fernandes Medeiros Braga

CONTENTS

12.1 Introduction .............................................................................................. 168 12.2 Drought Indicators and Triggers ........................................................... 168

12.2.1 Context ......................................................................................... 168 12.2.2 Indicators and Performance Evaluation .................................. 169

12.2.2.1 Meteorological Indicators ......................................... 169 12.2.2.2 Hydrological Indicators ............................................ 170 12.2.2.3 Indicators Based on Storage Levels ......................... 171 12.2.2.4 Performance Evaluation ........................................... 172

12.2.3 Application Example .................................................................. 174 12.3 Basin Drought Preparedness Plan ......................................................... 174

12.3.1 Context ......................................................................................... 174 12.3.2 Indicators and Drought Monitor for the Basin ....................... 179

12.3.2.1 Northeast Drought Monitor ..................................... 180 12.3.2.2 Standardized Precipitation Index ........................... 182 12.3.2.3 Standardized Runoff Indicator ................................ 183 12.3.2.4 State Index .................................................................. 185 12.3.2.5 Drought Monitor for the Piranhas-Açu River

Basin ............................................................................ 186 12.3.3 Vulnerability Analysis ............................................................... 188 12.3.4 Actions.......................................................................................... 189

12.4 Drought Plan for a Water System ........................................................... 190 12.4.1 Context ......................................................................................... 190 12.4.2 Water System Operation ............................................................ 193 12.4.3 Actions.......................................................................................... 201

12.5 Urban Drought Preparedness Plan ....................................................... 202 12.5.1 Context ......................................................................................... 202 12.5.2 Monitoring and Early Warning ................................................ 203

Droughts and their impacts were widely discussed in the previous chapters of this book. As they are a recurring phenomenon and a part of climate variability, the development of drought preparedness plans (DPPs) constitute a useful tool to help reduce the economic, social, and environmental impacts associated with them.