A large proportion of buildings are masonry, and the material continues to be widely used in new construction. However, there is huge variability within materials classified as ‘masonry’, including block type (stone, clay brick, concrete, aerated concrete, hollow, rammed earth, etc.), mortar type (dry joints, cement mortar, lime mortar, etc.), bonding pattern, and function (load bearing, infill, cladding, partition wall, thermal barrier). In addition, each of these aspects may vary from country to country. This wide scope and variability makes the development of masonry building codes challenging. In the case of the Eurocode, this


9.1 Introduction 235 9.2 Conceptual design principles 236 9.3 Masonry typologies and structural behaviour 238

9.3.1 Reinforced masonry 238 9.3.2 Confined masonry 239 9.3.3 Infill masonry 239 9.3.4 Unreinforced masonry 240

9.4 Simple design rules and analysis methods 241 9.4.1 Rules for simple masonry structures 241 9.4.2 Linear analysis 242 9.4.3 Non-linear static analysis 243 9.4.4 Non-linear dynamic analysis 245

9.5 Design example 245 9.5.1 Introduction 245 9.5.2 Masonry mechanical properties 246 9.5.3 Design loads 246 9.5.4 Seismic design checks: Linear static analysis 247 General considerations 247 Member design checks 247

9.5.5 Seismic design checks: Non-linear static analysis 249 General considerations 249 Pushover simulation results 251 Displacement-based design checks 252

9.6 Summary 253 References 254

variability has forced the code to be more general than for other materials, leaving more responsibility with local (country) building officials, and more variation between practices within Eurocode countries.