Solid waste management (SWM) systems are always developed with the objective of dealing with major concerns such as environmental, social, and economic issues, resource exploitation, and land use. Most developing countries around the world are facing the ever-growing problem of waste generation, treatment, and disposal. Rapid urbanization, weak institution capacities, and the absence of strong regulations are the primary reasons for the failure of most SWM systems. None of the SWM systems developed in high-, medium-, and low-income countries include all aspects of sustainability; also, they do not include all the relevant stakeholders, such as government officials, the public, and industry, in the decision-making and planning process (Morrisey and Browne 2004). There is a need to develop a broad systems perspective for SWM in developing countries where municipal corporations are unable to handle waste properly and to provide adequate facilities to ordinary people. For the development of a systems approach, first it is necessary to understand the various development drivers (factors that significantly impact the development of SWM) in developed countries and the challenges faced by developing countries. Knowledge of drivers assists in understanding the current scenario of SWM systems in developed as well as developing countries. This chapter focuses on the concept of integrated SWM from a systems perspective, followed by the various systems approaches to SWM and the need to solve the prolonged problem of SWM in developing countries. The later sections explain the principles of systems engineering, beginning with the definition of a system, systems boundaries, and types of approach to systems thinking. Different systems engineering methods are also described in detail to identify which method is suitable for a particular context.