The integration of biorefineries into industrial value chains will be driven by either upstream players or downstream customers. In addition, each type of biomass substrate requires different procedures and technologies. As a consequence, many different models and concepts of biorefineries can be foreseen, with a large variety of technologies necessary to develop affecting in turn the fixed costs and profitability of the different specific routes. Full biomass use and symbiosis at the regional level are further critical aspects of the future of biorefineries, with a high degree of regional specialization, in addition to process technologies that are easy to be adapted at different process schemes. One of the key elements in the new models of biorefineries is also the need for integrated CO2 reuse and introduction of renewable energy in the biorefinery value chain. The concept of biorefineries is evolving because the nexus between chemistry and energy is changing, driven from the demand for sustainable energy and chemistry production.