Chlorine dioxide is an oxidant gas that can be used either in gaseous phase or dissolved to decontaminate minimally processed horticulture produce. This chapter revises the chemical properties and characteristics of chlorine dioxide relevant for decontamination, its microbicidal mechanism of action, and its effects on microbial populations and the shelf life of decontaminated produce. The chapter also reviews its effects on metabolic activity, nutritional and sensory quality of the produce subjected to decontamination, and the toxicity and regulatory status of the use of this decontaminant.