Various physiological and biochemical alterations occur in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables due to mechanical damage during processing, and this leads to physiological breakdown, phytonutrient degradation, and microbial spoilage during storage. Degradation of the fresh-cut products can be slowed down under reduced O2 and elevated CO2 levels. Benefits of enhanced (superatmospheric) O2 levels for preservation of fresh-cut products were also demonstrated in some recent studies. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage is not applied commercially to fresh-cut products due to practical limitations, but it may be helpful for determining optimal atmosphere compositions. Modified atmosphere (MA) is used extensively for fresh-cut produce, usually in the form of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Passive MAP is based solely on respiratory activity of the produce, and active MAP includes flushing packages with desired gas mixtures. When internal O2 and CO2 in packages attain the recommended CA conditions, the quality of fresh-cut produce can be maintained by reducing respiration rates, ethylene responses, water loss, and enzymatic browning, and by preserving sensory and nutritional quality. On the other hand, extremely low O2 and high CO2 levels should be avoided to prevent fermented off-flavors, growth of anaerobic pathogens, and tissue injury. Upper O2 concentration limits should also be defined for each fresh-cut product, because the effect of high O2 atmospheres depends on O2 levels, produce type, maturity, and ripening stage. Combining MAP with complementary technologies such as 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment to delay ripening and senescence of produce or sanitizer application to inhibit the growth of pathogens could be helpful for maintaining quality and assuring safety of fresh-cut produce. This chapter evaluates the influence of CA/MA on the physiology and quality of fresh-cut produce and presents successful MAP technologies and strategies for product preservation.