This chapter summarizes the studies involving neurotrophins, especially the most common ones, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and their potential therapeutic values in treating Alzheimer’s disease. Neurotrophins belong to a family of proteins that are essential for the nervous system development, function and survival of neurons. Preclinical drug development directed towards enhancing neurotrophin signaling is considered to provide novel therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative disorders. NGF was the first neurotrophin to be identified after the discovery of its ability to promote neurite growth when applied to explanted dorsal root ganglia. NGF facilitates electrophysiological long-term potentiation (LTP) and its blockage inhibits LTP in rat cholinergic septohippocampal system. NGF promotes cell survival and proliferation effects by binding to its receptor tropomyosin related kinase A (TrkA) and inducing the TrkA-mediated signaling. NGF deficiency in the brain induces apoptosis, death and dysfunction of neurons, and accelerates Ap deposits and Ap-induced toxicity.