The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River include the provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, as well as the city of Shanghai. Most rice-based cropping system types in the world can be found in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Less intensive rice cultivation technologies are commonly achieved by simplifying land preparation and crop establishment; several less intensive cultivation technologies, such as reduced or no-tillage, seedling throwing, and direct seeding, have been developed in China. Rice production begins with the seedling stage in flooded nurseries for about a month and proceeds to the growing stage in paddy fields for about 3 to 4 months. Direct seeded rice refers to rice production through direct seeding in the production field rather than transplanting rice seedlings grown in a nursery. It involves sowing pre-germinated rice seeds into a paddy soil surface, with or without standing water.