The average thickness of loess is about 50 to 80 m and sometimes may even be up to 150 to 180 m. The loess has a delicate and uniform texture with a particle size of only 0.005 to 0.05 mm. The Loess Plateau, with a long history of development and serious land degradation, is one of the origins of the world’s dryland agriculture. Potatoes with high yields are traditionally dominant crops in the Loess Plateau. Potatoes grow in the same period as temperature increases and rainfall occurs; however, farmers had little initiative to plant potatoes due to the low level of market demand. Crop production systems are concentrating on maize and potatoes as market demand increases. Meanwhile, the planting areas of other traditional crops with short growth periods and low yields are gradually being reduced. The natural adjustment of planting structures is promoting the continual increase of crop production capacity in this region.