This chapter introduces agroecology practices in the region that coordinate ecological, economic, and social benefits by applying systematic engineering methods along with modern science and technology to construct an eco-agricultural system with a virtuous eco-economic cycle, multilevels, and multifunctions, guided by the principles of ecology and ecological economics. The region is characterized by a deteriorated natural environment, drought, water scarcity, low vegetation coverage, low land use efficiency, and low rural economic incomes, but it does have abundant light and thermal resources. Establishing an agroecosystem structure with multiple layers in space and multiple sequences in time could produce high economic and ecological benefits. The arboreal trees are mainly composed of economic forest species that are drought resistant and adapted to barren environments, such as Tamarindus indica. Economic efficiency was analyzed for Leucaena leucocesphala with diameters 5 cm as timber and for seed collection, and all firewood and seeds were sold at market prices.