Landscape fragmentation is the result of transforming large habitat patches into smaller, more isolated fragments of habitat. This process is most obvious in intensively used regions, where fragmentation is the product of the linkage of built-up areas via linear infrastructure, such as roads and railroads (Saunders et al., 1991; Forman, 1995). Despite many improvements in legislation to better protect biodiversity, urban sprawl is still increasing in Europe and new transport infrastructure is being constructed at a rapid pace. Fragmentation has signicant effects on various ecosystem services and wildlife populations (Table 20.1).