Dismemberment of body relates to the act of the removal of parts of the body, whether the victim is alive or dead, and it has been used as a form of capital punishment in its own right for much of the known history of man. There are several descriptions of different criminal dismemberment categories, but those most commonly followed are discussed in communications such as Rajs et al. and Hakkanen-Nyholm et al and are summarized as follows: defensive dismemberment, aggressive dismemberment, offensive dismemberment, necromanic dismemberment, and communication dismemberment. Research has shown that most households contain the tools necessary for dismemberment, and therefore there is rarely the need to actively purchase additional resources to undertake both the acts of dismemberment and packaging of materials. Dismemberment is nearly always performed at the site of the homicide, and frequently in the place inhabited by either the perpetrator or the victim.