Increasing recognition of the public health importance of transport has been accompanied by a shift in focus away from direct harms, such as those of injuries and air pollution, to a broader health-promotion perspective that considers issues such as physical activity, sustainability, and access to goods and services. A modal shift away from cars to increased walking and cycling would improve health, reduce inequalities, and lessen the environmental impacts of transport. Many of the interventions required to achieve a modal shift of this sort, such as high-quality urban planning and design, lower speeds, and reallocation of road space, would be likely to improve health in other ways through reduced injuries, greater social cohesion, and better quality of life. Evidence for the health benefits of physical activity has been accumulating since Morris showed in 1953 that bus conductors had lower rates of heart attacks than bus drivers.