This chapter explores what public health nursing means, identifies some recent government policies that have influenced practice, and highlights some of the current and future challenges/opportunities for nurses in public health practice. The resurgence of interest in public health nursing has also created a need to debate the definition of public health nursing. The core functions epitomise public health practice through identifying the need for assessment, management of identified need and ongoing prevention and health promotion to ensure good health outcomes. Although earlier attempts to separate commissioning from provision were modified in order to allow integrated PCTs to continue if they so wished and if agreed to by the new strategic health authorities, the government remains keen to promote greater diversity in service provision in the belief that this can only improve quality and benefit users. It is claimed that increased capacity and contestability will allow people greater choice and convenience.