Health protection is a new concept that has gained popularity as an area of public health activity. Its core functions include the prevention and control of infections, protection against non-communicable environmental hazards and emergency planning and the healthcare response to emergencies. Health protection is concerned with both acute events and also long-term issues. The UK has the most explicit national approach to this area with the adoption of a health protection strategy, the creation of the Health Protection Agency and the Health Protection Agency Act. In response to a number of national and international events other countries in Europe and beyond are adopting variations on the UK model. The chapter presents some examples of the opportunities the Strategy and the Agency to develop the tools, workforce and organisation for the delivery of health protection, and also the challenges and issues that arise.