This chapter describes parallels between urban regeneration and current changes within healthcare systems. The major weakness identified is the focus on structures and physical capital at the expense of processes and people and their relationships and networks. Surprising things often happen when communities share their views with professionals at the 'front line' and jointly develop responses to local needs. At the same time the challenges that face primary care and urban regeneration at the start of the 21st century must be recognised. UK government departments and the Office for National Statistics have now adopted the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development definition of social capital as the basis for consistent and coherent measurement of its components across the UK. The major opportunity presented is to realise links between social capital, health and empowerment. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.